Engelbart: “Augmenting Human Intellect”. “By “augmenting human intellect” we mean increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex. C. Engelbart, and William K. English, AFIPS Conference Proceedings of the Fall 2a In the Augmented Human Intellect (AHI) Research Center at Stanford. Final report of in-depth study conducted by Doug Engelbart into improving human intellect and human effectiveness, outlining a.
|Published (Last):||2 January 2014|
|PDF File Size:||1.70 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||5.90 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
For the detailed manipulation of mathematical and logical expressions, Bush projects computing aids which have been surpassed by subsequent development that allow the individual to exercise a greater proportion of his time augmentig talents in the tasks of selecting data and the appropriate transformations and processes which are to be executed, leaving to the machinery the subsequent execution.
All of this information the building fngelbart and its associated “thought structure” can be stored on a tape to represent the design manual for the building.
The explicit new system we contemplate will involve as artifacts computers, and computer-controlled information-storage, information-handling, and information-display devices. Extracting such items or kernels and putting each on its own notecard helps this process considerably—the role or position of each such item in the growth of the note structure is independent, and yet if desired all can quickly be isolated and extracted by simple needle sorting on the reference-number notching field.
But these are only part of the matching processes between the deeper human processes that direct a given word to be typed and the deeper artifact processes that actually imprint the ink marks on the paper.
The purposes of this paper are to present the concept and, hopefully, to foster the development of man-computer symbiosis by analyzing some problems of interaction between men and computing machines, calling attention to applicable principles of man-machine engineering, and pointing out a few questions to which research answers are needed. For example, when my telephone rings, I execute the direct-contributive processes of picking up the receiver and saying hello.
This repertoire is like a tool kit, and just as the mechanic must know what his tools can do and how to use them, so the intellectual worker must know the capabilities of his tools and have good methods, strategies, and rules of thumb for making use of them. In a team that through some interface design strategies that must meet the work in a complex situation the synergystic aspect became complexity of new problems and of the new emerging relevant, and even more in a augmented-team that involve technologies.
Intelligence amplification IA also referred to as cognitive augmentation and machine augmented intelligence refers to the effective use of information technology in augmenting human intelligence. First he runs through an encyclopedia, finds and interesting but sketchy article, leaves it projected, Next, in a history, he finds another pertinent item, and ties the two together.
The system that is described here — useful to us to indicate the purpose that he has set, because this is even it is a computer-based system – have a social structure, not important and clarifying to better understand the development of mechanical.
We assume that, for a given unit of comprehension to be imparted, there is a concept structure which can be consciously developed and displayed that can be presented to an individual in such a way that it is mapped into a corresponding mental structure which provides the basis for augmentnig individual’s “comprehending” behavior.
There seems to be no way of telling whether or not the apparent bottoms processes that cannot be further subdivided exist in inteplect physical world or in the limitations of human understanding. We offer the following hypothesis, which is related to the Whorfian hypothesis: At the bottom of each there are a number of blank code spaces, and a pointer is set to indicate one of these on each item.
A number of useful new structuring processes can be made available to an individual through development and use of relatively simple equipment that is mostly electromechanical in nature and relatively cheap. If the flexibility desired for the process hierarchies to make room for human cut-and-try methods is not to be degraded or abandoned, the executive activity will have to be provided with fast and flexible symbol-structuring techniques.
The notches on the edges of the cards are symbols that serve to tie these card-sized symbol sub structures into a large symbol structure the notedeck.
But further powers of intellectual effectiveness are implicit in this stage of biological evolution the same stage we are in today.
He wrote as World War II was coming to an end, and his principal purpose seemed to be to offer new professional objectives to those scientists who were soon to be freed from war-motivated research and development. On this are placed longhand notes, photographs, memoranda, all sort of things. When Engelbart state a framework that is not only a simply research report but a wrote this paper he felt the urgency to find a augmentingg to help people to vision of the future.
Not only do my own thoughts produce results augemnting this fashion, but when I digest the writings of another person, I find generally anyway that I have extracted from his structure and integrated into my own a specific selection of facts, considerations, ideas, etc.
Suppose you had a new writing machine—think of it as a high-speed electric typewriter with some special features. Engelbart divides our augmented problem-solving capabilities up: With a “pointer,” he indicates two points of interest, moves his left hand rapidly over the keyboard, and the distance and elevation between the points indicated appear on the right-hand third of the screen. In particular, the intelligence of a human being, derived ultimately from engelgart characteristics of individual nerve cells, undoubtedly results from synergism.
Engelbart viewed augmentation as being to a great extent about developing new ways of manipulating and structuring symbols:. This is an exact analogy with the electrical vibrations which occur in the cable of ibtellect television set: The physician, puzzled by its patient’s auggmenting, strikes the trail established in studying an earlier similar case, and runs rapidly through analogous case histories, with side references to the classics for the pertinent anatomy and histology.
Hard for an unaided human.
Also, writing inyellect passage twice with the brick-pencil tires the untrained hand and arm. If the Neo-Whorfian hypothesis could be proved readily, and if we could see how our means of externally engelbzrt symbols influence both our language and our way of thinking, then we would have a valuable instrument for studying human-augmentation possibilities. The term “intelligence amplification” seems applicable to our goal of augmenting the human intellect in that the entity to be produced will exhibit more of what can be called intelligence than an unaided human could; we will have amplified the intelligence of the human by organizing his intellectual capabilities into higher levels of synergistic structuring.
The other important part of our “language” is the way in which concepts are represented—the symbols and symbol structures. If he is a layman, his concept of what provides this sophisticated capability may endow the machine with a mysterious power to sweep information through perceptive and intelligent synthetic thinking devices.
We then want to determine the useful modifications in the language and in the way of thinking that could result. This kind of system approach to human intellectual effectiveness does not find a ready-made conceptual framework such as exists for established disciplines. A Conceptual Framework For instance, the finger and hand motions explicit human processes activate key-linkage motions in the typewriter couple to explicit-artifact processes. The important thing to appreciate here is that a direct new innovation in one particular capability can have far-reaching effects throughout the rest of your capability hierarchy.
We do not speak of isolated clever tricks that help in particular situations. Deflection to the left gives him inteellect same control backwards.
In the future systems, for instance, it should be engelbarf to have computer processes provide direct and significant intel,ect in his processes at many levels. For explain this world’s problems through boosting the capabilities of the human’s idea that we should not forget that at the time was revolutionary intellect. Prescribing different planes here and there, curved surfaces occasionally, and moving the whole structure about five feet, he finally has the rough external form of the building balanced nicely with the setting and he is assured that this form is basically compatible with the materials to be used as well as with the function of the building.
What makes a new symbol particularly powerful? The system is actively engaged in the continuous processes among others of developing comprehension within the individual and of solving problems; both processes are subject to human motivation, engelnart, and will.
It would be practical for you to accommodate more complexity in the trails of thought you might build in search of the path that suits your needs. The conceptual framework we seek must orient us toward the real possibilities and problems associated with using modern technology to give direct aid to an individual in comprehending complex situations, isolating the significant factors, and solving problems.
In Section IV Research Recommendations we present a general strategy for pursuing research toward increasing human intellectual effectiveness.
Engelbart focused primary on the relation human intellect. The Memex adds a factor of speed and convenience to ordinary filing-system symbol-structuring processes that would encourage new methods of work by the user, and it also adds speed and convenience for processes not generally used before. Brains of power equal to ours could have evolved in an environment where the combination of artifact materials and muscle strengths were so scaled that the neatest scribing tool equivalent to a pencil, enge,bart had a shape and mass as manageable as a brick would be to us-assuming that our muscles were engelbarg specially conditioned to deal with it.
However, the “man-artifact interface” has existed for centuries, ever since humans began using artifacts and executing composite processes.
Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. These cookies do not store any personal information.